Comparison of the incidence of oesophageal cancer in two 6-year periods from selected hospitals in and around Gauteng Province, South Africa
Introduction. Global trends suggest that the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has decreased but that the incidence of adenocarcinoma (AC) has increased. In South Africa, outdated data exist, thereby prompting this investigation.
Objectives. To determine the incidence of oesophageal cancer in two 6-year periods in and around Gauteng Province. Further distinction was made based on gender, race and histological types.
Methods. A retrospective audit was conducted including histologically documented oesophageal cancer cases collected over a 12-year period from 2001 to 2012, which was divided into two 6-year periods. Incidence was calculated based on the 2013 Gauteng estimated population size. Statistical analysis was performed using the χ2 test.
Results. On the whole, there was a significant decrease in the incidence of SCC (p=0.0001). Significant decreases were seen in the African male and female groups (p=0.001 and p=0.0006, respectively). No significant difference was seen in the non-African male and female groups. A non-significant decrease was seen in the AC type with regards to gender and race.
Conclusion. Reasons for the decline shown here are unknown as patient risk factors were not available. Furthermore, major healthcare centres were not included. These are points for future investigation. The incidence of oesophageal cancer has decreased since 2001, owing to the decrease in SCC in African males and females. Although the decreases in the AC type were not significantly different, they do not parallel global trends.
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